Note: This course listing is for informational purposes only and does not constitute a contract between CIEE and any applicant, student, institution, or other party. The courses, as described, may be subject to change as a result of ongoing curricular revisions, assignment of lecturers and teaching staff, and program development. Courses may be cancelled due to insufficient enrollment.
CIEE Study Center Syllabi
To view the most recent syllabi for courses taught by CIEE at our Study Centers, visit our syllabi site.
Students are placed in two of the following consecutive language courses based upon results of onsite proficiency tests.
CHIN 1002 SACS Chinese—Accelerated Beginning I
CHIN 1004 SACS Chinese—Accelerated Beginning II
These accelerated courses allow students to complete first-year beginning level Chinese in just one semester. The goal of these courses is to provide an introduction to modern standard Chinese through the integration of all five skills: aural comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, and cultural understanding. These courses concentrate on basic daily life communications, correct oral pronunciation, the four tones, as well as the basic grammatical patterns. Textbooks: Wu Zhongwei 吴中伟, ed. Dangdai Zhongwen: keben 1-2 当代中文•课本1-2 (Contemporary Chinese: textbook, vol. 1-2). Beijing: Sinolingua Press, 2003; Wu Zhongwei, ed. Dangdai Zhongwen: lianxi ce 1-2 当代中文•练习册1-2 (Contemporary Chinese: exercise book, vol. 1-2). Beijing: Sinolingua Press, 2003; supplementary texts.
CHIN 2002 SACS Chinese—Accelerated Intermediate I
CHIN 2004 SACS Chinese—Accelerated Intermediate II
(Prerequisite: two semesters of college-level Chinese language study required)
These accelerated courses allow students to complete second-year intermediate level Chinese in just one semester. The purpose of these courses is to develop students’ Chinese language abilities in aural comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, and cultural understanding. Students’ linguistic knowledge is reinforced and expanded through class activities with increasing sophistication. Students are required to comprehend and produce paragraph-level Chinese. Rigorous practice of spoken and written Chinese in complex communicative activities is conducted during class. Textbooks: Liu Xun 刘珣, ed. Xin shiyong Hanyu keben: keben 3 新实用汉语课本•课本3 (New practical Chinese reader: textbook, vol. 3). Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2012; Liu Xun, ed. Xin shiyong Hanyu keben: zonghe lianxi ce 3 新实用汉语课本•综合练习册3 (New practical Chinese reader: workbook, vol. 3). Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2011; Liu Xun, ed. Xin shiyong Hanyu keben: keben 4 (New practical Chinese reader: textbook, vol. 4). Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2004; Liu, Xun, ed. Xin shiyong Hanyu keben: zonghe lianxi ce 4 (New practical Chinese reader: workbook, vol. 4). Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2004; supplementary texts.
CHIN 3002 SACS Chinese–Accelerated Advanced I
CHIN 3004 SACS Chinese–Accelerated Advanced II
(Prerequisite: four semesters of college-level Chinese language study)
These accelerated courses allow students to complete third-year advanced level Chinese in just one semester. These courses emphasize understanding formal writings, as compared to the spoken language texts students learned in their second year. Students are expected to discuss and write about formal topics, such as those related to contemporary social problems in China. Textbooks: Zhuang Jiaying 庄稼婴and Zhang Zengzeng 张增增. Xin shijiao: gaoji Hanyu jiaocheng (shang, xia) 新视角:高级汉语教程(上、下). Beijing: Peking University Press, 2007; Wu Chengnian 吴成年. Du baozhi, xue Zhongwen: zhongji Hanyu baokan yuedu (xia ce) 读报纸，学中文:中级汉语报刊阅读(下册). Beijing: Peking University Press, 2004; supplementary texts.
CHIN 4003 SACS Chinese–Accelerated Advanced High I
CHIN 4004 SACS Chinese–Accelerated Advanced High II
(Prerequisite: six semesters of college-level Chinese language study)
These accelerated courses allow students to complete fourth-year advanced level in just one semester. These courses emphasize developing skills for making speeches and writing essays on complex topics. Students of this level are expected to express themselves not only fluently and accurately, but also with sophistication. Textbooks: Wu Chengnian. Du baozhi, xue Zhongwen: zhun gaoji Hanyu baokan yuedu (shang ce) 读报纸，学中文:准高级汉语报刊阅读(上册). Beijing: Peking University Press, 2006; Wu Yamin 吴雅民. Dubao zhi Zhongguo: baokan yuedu jichu (xia) 读报知中国:报刊阅读基础(下) (Learning about China from newspapers: elementary newspaper reading, vol. 2). Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2006; instructor developed materials.
CHIN 4902 SACS Chinese–Accelerated Superior I
CHIN 4904 SACS Chinese–Accelerated Superior II
(Prerequisite: Chinese language proficiency of advanced high or above according to ACTFL guidelines)
These courses aim to train students’ abilities in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills at the superior level. Students at this level are expected to apply Chinese in both formal and informal settings. Students are trained to develop discourse in Chinese with coherence and cohesiveness. Students are also expected to communicate with accuracy, fluency, and sophistication. Depending on enrollment, this course may be structured to the individual needs of students. Textbook: Instructor developed materials.
Business Elective Courses—in English
These business electives are designed for students with a major or minor related to international business or economics. Students on this program must have completed three or more semesters of college-level microeconomics or macroeconomics, accounting, finance, management, or marketing to be eligible.
BUSI 3001 SBLC
Changing Nature of Business in China
This course is designed to give students a practical overview of the dynamic set of issues related to the changing nature of doing business in China. The topics for discussion cover a wide range of global economic issues. The course takes a look at the current business and economic environment facing both foreign and local organizations in China, including but not limited to, the global economic crisis, China’s new stimulus program, new value added tax policies on export and imported equipment, new labor contract law, RMB exchange, and human resources issues for employers and employees. Finally, students are asked to evaluate these key issues and explore the kind of opportunities China presents and to whom. Class format emphasizes discussions and student participation. In addition, this class is supplemented with a site visit and a guest speaker from the business community. Instructor: Charles Mo, former Vice Chairman for American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai, CFO for Nike China, and COO for Coca-Cola Shanghai
BUSI 3002 SBLC / ECON 3001 SBLC
China’s Macroeconomic Impact
Since 1978, when China initiated economic reforms and opening up policies, the Chinese economy has been one of the fastest growing economies in the world. China is now the world’s second biggest economy and second biggest exporter. This course examines the impact of China’s economic rise on the global economy over the last three decades. The course offers in-depth discussion of Chinese macroeconomic development, industrial structure, trade pattern, economic imbalance, and its impact on the rest of the world economy, particularly on Asia, the U.S., and Africa. Instructor: Dr. Yang Laike, Dean of the Department of International Trade, East China Normal University
BUSI 3006 SBLC / MGMT 3001 SBLC
Managing Sustainability in Transnational Business
This course will provide an overview on the development of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in China in comparison with North American and European countries. It aims to help students build a global perspective of CSR and sustainable business, with a strong mindset of applying practical knowledge to local issues. We will explore all essential CSR subjects, including environmental footprint, community involvement and development, fair operating practices, labor practices, and supply chain management, in a context of addressing challenges faced by transnational companies engaging various sets of stakeholders in different geographic territories. With a special emphasis on Asia and China in particular, students will study actual cases from MNCs operating in China. This course will also cover more advanced topics such as Corporate Social Innovation and CSR-related public policy in China as time permits. Instructor: Oliver Yang, Manager of Corporate Social Responsibility and Government Relations, American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai
BUSI 3007 SBLC / MKTG 3001 SBLC
Marketing Management and Methods in East Asia and Emerging Markets
Marketing is a company-wide undertaking that drives an organization’s vision, mission, and strategic planning. Marketing is about learning the overall shape of the market, deciding who the firm wants as its customers, which needs to satisfy, what products and services to create and offer, what prices to set, what communications to send and receive, what channels of distribution to use, and what partnerships to develop. Marketing deals with the whole process of entering markets, establishing sustainable and advantageous positions, and building loyal customer relationships. To achieve this, all departments must work together designing the right products, furnishing the required funds and accounting for their use, buying the right inputs, and producing quality products. At the same time, the traditional marketing mix is being transformed across many industries by new information technologies, and as a result, some of the “traditional wisdom” is being turned on its head. We will look at cutting-edge theory in modern marketing management to be applied across a spectrum of industries and institutions—both business to consumer and business to business/institution, and see how this theory is applied through recent case studies both in China and abroad. We will have a particular focus on timely issues such as CRM (Customer Relationship Marketing), the impact of information technology on all areas of business and marketing, specific issues in China, Asia, and emerging Markets, the implications and opportunities created by the global economic crisis, and effectively integrating the marketing mission into the organization across all functions with their often conflicting perspectives. Instructor: Jack Marr, Advising Director, Stern School of Business, New York University in Shanghai
BUSI 3008 SBLC / MGMT 3002 SBLC
Asian Management Systems
This is an advanced course on Asian business and management with a focus on formulation and implementation of business strategies toward this vast and diverse region. The course covers major topics related to governmental policy studies, business strategies, operational challenges, management system comparisons, and changing business environment in the region. Articles and cases are analyzed throughout the course to enhance understanding of complex nature of regional business. Textbook: Min, Chen. Asian Management Systems: Chinese, Japanese and Korean Styles of Business. London and New York: Routledge, 1995. Instructor: Dr. Chen Min, Global Business Department, Thunderbird School of Global Management
BUSI 3201 SBLC / ECON 3201 SBLC
The New Giants and the New Order: Economy and Business in the Emerging World
As the cold war ended, new economic giants and global challenges began to emerge. The story begins in China, historically a rich, powerful, and plentiful nation, but left reeling and impoverished from a century of turmoil. Now, China boasts four of the world’s six largest companies by market capitalization and is home to the second largest population of the world’s wealthy. “Made in China” is increasingly synonymous with manufacturing, and this flurry of activity has produced a massive, complex, and sophisticated consumer market and China has become a rising international player on the world stage. Not long after, India, the world’s second most populous nation and another ancient civilization, began to shed some of the bureaucratic barriers of its recent past, and focus increasingly on growth. India, a democracy, looked to services instead of manufacturing and quickly came to dominate the world’s “back office.” We look at how these two models from macro (i.e. policy) and micro (i.e. company) levels share similarities and differences. A relatively newer and related game is the development of new markets, such as sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, and even exerting power in places as far as Latin America. Also emerging from a chaotic period of decolonization and political instability, these nations and people see greater promise in the Chinese and Indian models than the traditional U.S.-led Washington Consensus. The great game of globalization, much lauded in the late 1800s, is on again with a new set of players. In this seminar, we look at the major issues and try to make sense of what has happened and where things are headed in the future. Instructor: Jack Marr, Advising Director, Stern School of Business, New York University in Shanghai
BUSI 3202 SBLC / FINC 3001 SBLC
Multinational Business Finance
This course introduces students to the global financial environment with special emphasis on the multinational enterprise in emerging countries, particularly China. The goal is to provide students a basic understanding of the fundamentals of international finance on the following topics: exchange rate parity relationships, techniques for measuring and hedging foreign exchange rate risk, strategies for managing the global cost and availability of capital, capital budgeting, long term debt, foreign direct investment and country risk, local government regulation, and international portfolio management.
East Asian Studies Elective Courses—in English
EAST 3002 SBLC / ECON 3002 SBLC
China’s Economic Reforms
(Prerequisite: previous college-level coursework in economics)
This course introduces students to both the domestic and international aspects of China’s economy. It explores the political, social, and cultural forces shaping China’s modernization and how the country’s businesses are interacting with the world marketplace. It also provides students the knowledge of processes of reforms in different economic aspects in China and strives to help them understand the macroeconomic and microeconomic characteristics of the Chinese economy. In this course, students come to understand the economic mechanism in the so called “Socialist Market Economy,” and gain a better understanding of the achievements and challenges that China is facing in its further economic reform and modernization. By the end of the semester, students are expected to analyze the Chinese economy using practical methods appropriate to China’s current economic situation. Instructor: Dr. Xu Mingqi, Deputy Director of the Institute of World Economy and Director of Department of International Finance, Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
EAST 3002 SCGC / GLOB 3001 SCGC
Seminar on Issues of Globalization in China
Globalization is a new concept, but global connection is hardly a new phenomenon unique to the turn of the 21st century. There have been many instances in China’s long history when China was known for its global reach and international connection. Shanghai and many cities in the lower Yangtze Delta are examples of China’s global connections in history and the contemporary era. Thus, the course begins with an historical analysis of the extent of China’s global reach, as well as analysis of the events that led to the decision in 1978 to implement substantial economic reforms and therefore begin the process of incorporating China into the global world. Following the historical component, the course shifts its focus to the contemporary era, exploring the relationship between globalization and transformation in China, with a particular emphasis on China’s changing sociological structure and culture. Instructor: Michael Drake
EAST 3003 SCGC / HIST 3001 SCGC
Modern Chinese History
The first half of this course will survey, chronologically, the various eras of modern Chinese history, ranging from the late-Qing to Hu Jintao. The second half will build on the first half by focusing on the historical developments that have taken place in modern China in the areas of economic development; historical and dialectical materialism; crime and capital punishment; women, gender, and sexuality; health and environment; international relations; and non-mainstream perspectives. Many questions will be raised in class discussion, such as: “What were the major causes of the collapse of the Qing Dynasty?”, “What was the May 4th Movement and how did it shape modern Chinese?”, “What were the social and political forces that culminated in civil war?”, “What was the nature and significance of China’s nascent 20th century nationalism?”, “What was the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution and how did they shape Chinese history?”, and “Despite all the changes in China over the last century, how does the past continue to influence the present?” Instructor: Dr. Josef Gregory Mahoney, Associate Professor of Politics, East China Normal University
EAST 3004 SCGC / INRE 3001 SCGC
China’s International Relations
(Prerequisite: previous coursework in political science, international affairs, macroeconomics, or permission from the instructor)
This course offers an analysis of China’s foreign policy and China’s relations with the U.S. and other major players in international affairs—the EU, Japan, and India. It consists of three interrelated parts: a basic understanding of Chinese foreign policy; discussions of Sino-European, Sino-Japanese, and Sino-Indian relations, with the most important third party (U.S.) factor taken into account; and lastly, a focus on important issues in Sino-U.S. relations from a Chinese foreign policy perspective. Instructor: Dr. Zhang Tiejun, Associate Research Professor, School of International and Public Affairs, Shanghai Jiaotong University
EAST 3005 SCGC / SOCI 3001 SCGC
Issues in Chinese Society
China’s transition to a market economy and return to the global community have huge impacts over the lives of its people, as well as the rest of the world. While covering other fields such as anthropology, political science, gender studies, and urban studies, this course mostly employs a sociological perspective to examine issues in contemporary Chinese society. Topics examined include not only these well-known aspects of Chinese society such as guanxi and face, collectivism and family-centered culture, but also the emerging civil society, ongoing sexual revolution, and increasing social polarization that are more likely associated with the enormous social change over the past three decades. Students are asked to critically and creatively think about change and continuity in contemporary China in relation to the dynamic and complex interaction of local factors and global forces. Instructor: Dr. Wei Wei, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, East China Normal University
EAST 3006 SCGC / POLI 3001 SCGC
Political Development in Modern China
The first half of this course will survey chronologically the major eras of modern China’s political change and development, from the Late Qing to the present day. The second half will focus on different aspects of Chinese political practice and development, including exploring the relationships between nationalism, Marxism and Confucianism; elite politics and Leninism; threats to Party rule; democratic development; constitutional developments and rule of law; the “China Model;” and “decentralized authoritarianism.”
Many questions will be raised in class discussion, such as: “Who and what have been and are the central political forces in China during the modern period and how might we understand them?”, “What were the central political conflicts between the Kuomintang and the CPC?”, “What are the fundamental similarities and differences between the Maoist and post-Maoist eras?”, “What are China’s prospects for democracy and the development of the rule of law?”, and “What is the “China Model” and what is “decentralized authoritarianism,” and how are these concepts if not practices shaping China and the world today?” Instructor: Dr. Josef Gregory Mahoney, Associate Professor of Politics, East China Normal University
EAST 3201 SCGC / CINE 3201 SCGC
Chinese Film and Society
(All films are subtitled in English. All works are read in English.)
This course examines Chinese cinema from its infancy to contemporary period within a social, political, and cultural context, focusing specifically on films produced in mainland China. It aims to 1) help students gain an understanding of some of the social, political, cultural, and economic changes that have taken place in China in recent years; 2) help students cultivate a greater interest in the history and extraordinary development of Chinese cinema, and in cinemas beyond Hollywood; and 3) present mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan as a culturally interconnected region through tracking recent cross-border activities in Chinese language cinema and introducing students to new ways of thinking about national cinema and culture. While acknowledging the importance of examining Chinese cinema in the general framework of national tradition and identity, this course also emphasizes the transnational or pan-Asian nature of Chinese film productions at present. In this way, it is hoped that the course not only helps students cultivate a greater command over current trends and debates in analysis and theorization of Chinese cinema, but also help facilitate students’ understanding of Chinese cinema and culture in the context of globalization. Instructor: Dr. Sun Shaoyi, Professor of Film and Media Studies, School of Film and Television Art and Technology, Shanghai University
EAST 3203 / GEND 3201 SCGC
Changing Roles of Women in China
This is an interdisciplinary survey of women, gender, and sexuality in traditional Chinese culture and their modern changes. Taking a historical perspective, the course examines ideologies, social institutions, and representations in these areas. Specific topics include Confucian gender ideology, the family system, marriage and concubinage, sex and sexuality, footbinding, and women’s liberation in the 20th century Chinese revolution. The course ends with an exploration of sexual and gender relations in contemporary China. Instructor: Dr. Jiang Jin, Professor, Department of History, and Director, Center for Gender and Cultural Studies, East China Normal University
Elective Courses—In Chinese
CHIN 1001 SACS
This course is designed for beginning-level Chinese learners to develop practical oral communicative skills in Chinese. The course is function-oriented. A range of practical topics such as introducing oneself, discussing daily routines, how to make acquaintances, entertaining guests, shopping, negotiating price, asking for directions, seeing a doctor, etc. will be introduced in class. Class instruction emphasizes communication, interaction, performance, and group work. Interactive classroom activities such as role-plays, interviews, group discussions, and trips outside the classroom will be used to encourage students to use Chinese in meaningful contexts. Students will complete a number of speaking tasks, including regular oral assignments, in-class oral activities, oral exams, as well as occasional real-life speaking activities during fieldtrips outside the classroom. Textbook: Instructor developed materials.
CHIN 3011 SACS
(Prerequisite: four semesters of college-level Chinese language study, or heritage learners with consent of the instructor)
This course focuses on advancing students’ knowledge of modern Chinese business, including its environment, traditions, corporate culture while improving student’s ability of listening, speaking, and reading Chinese through case studies on multinationals companies in China, such as IKEA, Starbucks, and Wal-Mart. The instructor will focus on the issue of the localization of multinational companies. Students will be assigned to collect information, analyze specific cases, and make oral presentations on issues discussed in class. The course includes a fieldtrip led by the instructor to the IKEA office in Shanghai. The goal is to teach students how to use Chinese to express their opinions on business topics through practice and real cases. Textbook: Yuan Fangyuan 袁芳远. Chenggongzhidao: zhongji shangwu Hanyu anli jiaocheng 成功之道：中级商务汉语案例教程 (Business Chinese for success: real cases from real companies). Beijing: Peking University Press, 2005. Instructor: Dr. Li Qingyu, Associate Professor, College of International Chinese Studies, East China Normal University
CHIN 3012 SACS
(Prerequisite: four semesters of college-level Chinese language study, or heritage learners with consent of the instructor)
Classical Chinese has influenced many aspects of modern Mandarin Chinese. Many common words used today, both in speech and writing, derive from classical roots. As such, knowledge of classical Chinese provides important insights into sophisticated usage of the language and greatly improves students’ literary appreciation and proficiency. Textbook: Yao Meiling 姚美玲, Gudai Hanyu 古代汉语 (Classical Chinese). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 2010. Instructor: Dr. Yao Meiling, Professor and Associate Dean, College of International Chinese Studies, East China Normal University
EAST 4003 SACS / CINE 4001 SACS
Chinese Film and Television
(Prerequisite: six semesters of college-level Chinese language study, or heritage learners with consent of the instructor)
This course is designed for students placed in “Chinese—Advanced High I” and higher levels and is facilitated in Chinese, with course material provided in Chinese characters and Pinyin transliteration to facilitate reading for content. This course discusses different genres of Chinese films and television series and their roles in Chinese society and culture. Class discussion in Chinese is supplemented by site visits. Instructor: Dr. Yuan Jieling, Assistant Professor, Shanghai Institute of Foreign Trade
EAST 4021 SACS / INRE 4021 SACS
Global Issues in China
(Prerequisite: six semesters of college-level Chinese language study, or heritage learners with consent of the instructor)
This course is designed for students placed in “Chinese—Advanced High I” and higher levels and is facilitated in Chinese, with course material provided in Chinese characters and Pinyin transliteration to facilitate reading for content. The course is designed to introduce the important role China plays in a global context and to help students understand Chinese perspectives on global issues that affect the world today. Instructor: Dr. Liu Jun, Associate Professor and Associate Dean, College of International Relations and Regional Studies, East China Normal University
Seminar on Living and Learning
CLST 3001 SCGC
Seminar on Living and Learning in Shanghai
The CIEE Seminar on Living and Learning in Shanghai takes an experiential, developmental, and holistic approach to intercultural development. In this course, students will acquire intercultural concepts and skills to apply to their daily experiences in Shanghai. Active reflection will help deepen their understanding of the complexity and diversity of Chinese core values and cultural practices, encourage them to develop a more nuanced awareness of cultural background, and help them develop the ability to handle intercultural tensions successfully. Instructor: Dr. Amy R. Goldman
INSH 3003 SACS
The Organizational Internship course is taught in English. Company internship sponsors may include both English and Chinese language work environments, depending on available position and qualifications of the student. This course provides students with guidelines and support for participating in a real world office environment in China. The course focuses on current issues facing their managers, peers, and professional office staff, and prepares students to be better equipped to work with co-workers and supervisors when stepping into a full-time job upon graduation. Students will be assigned to an internship project with a company in Shanghai. The internship sponsors, which vary each term depending on participating organizations and available positions, may include local Chinese companies and multinational companies, as well as international small and medium sized enterprises and nonprofit organizations. Lectures cover overall policies and procedures that may be applied to any company in China, including work ethics, staff behavior, corporate values, and techniques used in the office to work smoothly and efficiently with co-workers. The instructor is the facilitator for classroom discussions and individual student guidance. The subjects covered in the class entail real issues facing the interns and their company sponsors, with an emphasis on practical approaches and methods to solve workplace issues and challenges. The course requires 15 hours with the instructor in class and five to seven hours with the instructor or mentor one-on-one, and 100-120 hours at the internship site, in addition to 25-30 hours working on academic assignments, for a total of 145-160 hours. Recommended credit for this course is 3 semester/4.5 quarter hours. Instructor: Charles Mo, former Vice Chairman for American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai, CFO for Nike China, and COO for Coca-Cola Shanghai
INSH 3006 SBLC
The course requires 15 hours with the instructor in class and five to seven hours with the instructor or mentor one-one-one, and 200-240 hours at the internship site, in addition to 50-60 hours working on academic assignments, for a total of 270-320 hours. Recommended credit for this course is 6 semester/9 quarter hours. Students should confirm approved credit transfer with their home school advisor before enrolling in this course.
INDR 3003 SACS
Directed Independent Research
(Prerequisite: placement in “China—Advanced High I” or above)
INDR 3003 SCGC
Directed Independent Research
CIEE supports qualified students who wish to pursue an academically rigorous independent research project while in Shanghai. Interested students must submit a research proposal including a clearly defined research topic, explanation of research plans, description of preparation in the planned area of study, list of resources, tentative outline of a final paper, and suggested schedule of progress. Students complete a total of 135 hours of research and meet regularly with an academic advisor to complete an academically rigorous, ethically sound, and culturally appropriate research project and final paper. Approval for participation in Directed Independent Research must be obtained from the center director and the student’s home institution prior to arrival on the program. In Shanghai, students may pursue independent research in Asian studies, business, economics, film studies, gender studies, history, international relations, literature, management, marketing, politics, religious studies, or sociology.